Handling of Russian society to the international community in connection with the 95th anniversary of the Tambov peasant revolt
This year marks 95 years since the beginning of the Tambov uprising of Russian peasants against Communist tyranny. This revolt became a natural reaction of the population of the Central Black Earth region of Russia for the economic policies of the communist regime, which led to the impoverishment of the peasantry and mass starvation. Despite the fatal flaw of weapons and the absence of the majority of men of any military training, the rebel army under the command of a Russian patriot Alexander Antonov throughout the year constrained the onslaught of the numerically superior enemy forces. Hungry and barefoot, but encouraged by the desire for a genuinely democratic Russian government, the rebels have repeatedly won victories over the superior punitive detachments. In order to assess the scale of the military operations in the former of the Tambov province, enough to say that by the summer of 1921 the number of Soviet troops in the uprising exceeded 100 thousand soldiers who had armed with artillery, armored vehicles, aircraft and chemical weapons prohibited by the Hague Convention of 1899. At the same time, the number of rebel troops at the peak of the uprising reached figure of 50 thousand, with armed rebels sometimes met braids and peaks (modern weapons had to get in a fight).
In total in the territory covered by military operations, there were at least half a million people. The population of the region, before the 1917 revolution which was considered the breadbasket of Russia, has become a hostages of the criminal government, who decided to punish the disobedient for their will for freedom. Movement of Antonov («Antonov») was a non-authoritarian, national and democratic alternative of Bolshevismand therefore suppressed by the Red Army with special cruelty. During the expanded by Communists information war, Russian rebels was labeled as «bandits» that not only did not meets reality, but also contrary to the statements of the Soviet military leadership. Thus, the head of department headquarters army of the Tambov province — A. Kazakov party conference on 29 July 1921 admitted that «in the Tambov province, we are confronted not with banditry but with typical rebellion .» This and many other facts confirm that of 1920-1921. the territory of modern the Tambov and Voronezh, Ryazan, Saratov and Penza regions, Soviet army waged a full war against the rebels of the Russian people, instead of some «eradication of banditism»
Since the second half of the XX century, researchers have shown interest in the heroic struggle of the Russian peasants against a totalitarian dictatorship. Not once noted that organized under democratic slogans armed action inhabitants of Tambov was one of the first experiences of mass and that it is important to note the ideological resistance to totalitarianism. The latter, in turn, staged its first experiments in Tambov rebellious Russian people of Tambov, who had the courage to defend their rights by force of arms. In the future, the whole arsenal of misanthropic, tried out communism in the Tambov peasants, will be transferred to all the enslaved nations and peoples of the USSR.
The essence of the policy of the Soviet government in the Tambov region was limited to the creation of this region a special zone of occupation. The Secret «How to eradicate banditism in the Tambov province» of May 12, 1921, written by the commander of the Soviet troops M. Tukhachevsky, featured such concepts as «occupation», «occupying forces», «method of occupation» and so on. Red Army were instructed to «never make unrealistic threats», «just to make the threat of violence to steadily implement until the end», «to move to distant edge of the RSFSR families of not handed bandits» and «property of these families seize and distribute it between the Soviet-minded peasants» (because «it will make a bundle in the peasantry, and on it can rely the Soviet power»). Thus, the communist leadership manifested clearly expressed intention to destroy the discontented population of Tambov as a social group by physical destruction, deportation and deprivation of livelihood. Separately, it is worth noting how cynically pointed out the purpose of the confiscation of property from the families of the warring rebels, consisting of inciting social discord. These measures have been formalized and specified in the orders the commander of of the Tambov province, № 130 and 170. Mounted on the Tambov occupation regime also included and the creation of concentration camps for the rebels sympathetic population, hostage-taking ( whole families and alone), the destruction of farms and the destruction of houses of participants of revolt Ordered to shoot on the spot for refusing to give his name, harboring of insurgents and possession of weapons.
It is important to understand that the above measures were not fiction and implemented with shocking consistency. For example, in the report of one of the leaders of the punitive operation Antonov-Ovseyenko in the RCP (b) on the situation in of the Tambov province, counterinsurgency from July 20, 1921 lists the following results of the «struggle against gangsterism» in the village Belomestny Dvoynya: executed 154 hostages taken hostage 227 families, 17 houses burnt, 24 dismantled, 22 transferred to adherents of the communist regime In the report on the army Tukhachevsky Party Conference July 29, 1921 reported about taking at that time as a hostage in 1895 and 5194 families hostage single. Punishers extrajudicial cracked down whole villages, their inhabitants were shot en masse or deleting by artillery fire. According to the participants in the massacres: «Without shootings nothing comes. Executions in one village to another do not act until they will not have done the same measure. »
We should also allocate the fact of the use of chemical weapons by Soviet troops under the orders of №0116 from June 12, 1921. Asphyxiating gases was ordered to disperse on Forests, where was supposed to stay insurgents. The chemicals were sprayed over the entire area of the forest, «destroying everything that was hidden in it.»
The inhuman policy of the communist regime turned for Tambov many tens of thousands of victims. According to the latest estimates of the absolute deadweight loss of population of the Tambov province, totaled 110 thousand people. All the «guilt» of those killed in battle, shot, deported and imprisoned in the concentration camp people was that they wanted to live in a democracy and not a totalitarian state. Such a terrible price was paid to by the Russian people of Tambov for disobedience tyrants.
Unfortunately, the actions of the authorities of the RSFSR for the suppression of the Tambov uprising has not yet received international legal assessment. It happened because of the remoteness of the Tambov region from frontiers of the Soviet state, and the measures of the Soviet government’s hushing up of the tragedy. Meanwhile, there is good reasons to qualify the actions of the communist regime in the Tambov region in 1920-1921 years. as genocide. This conclusion is consistent with both the general meaning of international law and the specific international legal instruments devoted to genocide.
Genocide Convention in 1948 realizes the genocide as «acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such.» However, in the process of creation and consolidation of the legal term «genocide» is not just giving an expansive, compared to the 1948 Convention, the interpretation of this concept. The indictment of the Nuremberg trial, the first official document, which was made the definition of genocide, said that the defendants «conducted deliberate and systematic genocide, that is, the extermination of racial and national groups, and the destruction of the civilian population of the occupied territories in order to destroy certain nations and classes defined national , ethnic and religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles and Gypsies, as well as others. » As you can see, other than those specified in the 1948 Convention four categories of victims of the crime of genocide (national, racial, ethnic and religious groups), in the text of the indictment of the most momentous in the history of mankind, appear the concept of «the extermination of the civilian population of the occupied territories», with a view to destruction certain «classes». The notion of the «class» can mean any social group, for example, the population of the Tambov province, fell victim to a pronounced «genocidal intent» on the part of the communist leadership.
If the conclusion of the Nuremberg trial the concept of «genocide» is used without an official legal confirmation, the UN General Assembly Resolution on the Prevention of the Crime of Genocide and Punishment of 11 December 1946 finally introduced the concept in the legal lexicon. In particular, it is alleged that: «Genocide mean the refusal to recognize the right of existence of entire human groups, just as manslaughter is the denial of the right to life of individual human beings; a refusal to recognize the right of existence offends human conscience entails great loss for humanity, which is deprived of cultural and other values represented by these human groups, and contrary to the moral law, the spirit and aims of the United Nations. One can point to numerous crimes of genocide, when total or partial destruction have been racial, religious, political and other groups. The punishment for the crime of genocide is a matter of international importance. » From the text of the resolution it is clear that the object of genocide could be «entire human groups» and not only the groups united on national, racial, ethnic and religious grounds. Thus, the group, generalized communist regime on the basis of sympathy movement Antonov or direct participation in it, may be regarded as an object of genocide.
Finally, the author of the term «genocide» Polish lawyer criminologist R. Lemkin was a supporter of broad interpretation of the entered them in the concept of law. The original and undistorted political situation (presumably in favor of the USSR), the definition of genocide (without mention of the term, which was found Lemkin in 1944). It was first performed at the 5th Conference on the Standardization of international criminal law in 1933 and was reduced Lemkin to actions aimed at the destruction or the destruction of not only racial, ethnic, religious, and social communities. Curiously, Lemkin in his scientific pursuits considered genocide and artificially organized by Stalin’s regime famine in Ukraine («Holodomor»). Ukrainian tragedy is very close to the Tambov; and there, and there the mass extermination of people was made with the intent to destroy the communist regime disloyal elements among the peasants, without regard to their ethnicity (though in both cases, irreparable damage was applied to a single people, during the «Great Famine» was undermined by demographic potential of the Ukrainian nation , the suppression of «Antonov movement» irreparably damaged gene pool of the Russian nation).
In preparing the 1948 Convention, the initial value of the genocide has been artificially narrowed, which resulted in the exclusion from the Convention of any other «human groups», in addition to the above four. This has created numerous speculations on the concept of «genocide» and allowed totalitarian regimes in the first place, the Soviet avoid deserved punishment. In our opinion, it seems absurd to desire to restrict the the list of objects of genocide because equally inappropriate to deliberate annihilation of the Jews, Crimean Tatars, the kulaks, the monarchists, the Christians and the rebels fighting against occupation regime.
Giving preference to the original meaning of the concept of «genocide», as well as guided by the basic provisions of the Genocide Convention of 9 December 1948, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998, the UN General Assembly Resolution on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide him of 11 December 1946, the indictment of the Nuremberg Court of 18 October 1945 PACE resolution № 1481 dated January 25, 2006, call upon the international community:
1. On the official international level recognize the actions of the communist regime in suppressing the Tambov uprising in 1920-1922 as genocide of the population of Tambov.
2. Create an international criminal tribunal to investigate the fact of genocide of the population of Tambov. Given that the masterminds of of genocide and the creators of the cause of death can not be brought before the human court, because for a long time ago appeared before the court of God, the purpose of the investigation is not to punish the guiltybut to clarify all the circumstances of the tragedy that has cost the lives of over 110 thousand inhabitants of Tambov.
3. Urge the Russian Federation, as the successor of the RSFSR and the USSR and the bearer of the Soviet ideological traditions, recognize the genocide of the population of Tambov region in the form of a federal law.
4. Urge the Russian Federation to pay financial compensation to the descendants of of inhabitants of the Tambov province,, ie everyone who can prove that his ancestor (ancestors) lived in the area covered by the genocide, during the period from 1920 to 1926. (in that period, the population of Tambov suffered the greatest population losses).
5. Urge the Russian Federation to perpetuate the memory of Tambov fighters for a democratic Russia, rename streets bearing the names of the perpetrators of genocide (eg, street Marshal Tukhachevsky in Moscow) and to dismantle monuments odious chasteners (for example, a monument to Soviet Marshal Zhukov, who in 1921 scored in the suppression Tambov uprising, commanding a squadron of cavalry).
6. To establish an international day of remembrance of Russian fighters with the communist totalitarianism, in conjunction with the beginning of the Tambov uprising (the exact date is to be named after consultation with experts on the history of «Antonov movement»).
95 years ago Russian rebels have entered into an unequal battle with the enemy of all civilized mankind — communism. Defeated, they, along with all the anti-Soviet population Tambov underwent total destruction. The consequences of the criminal acts of the Soviet regime is still felt in the Tambov land. The free world must open their eyes to this forgotten artificially silenced tragedy and pay tribute to the victims of communism. We, the descendants and ideological inheritors Tambov freedom fighters strongly believe in the triumph of justice. At a time when the leadership of the Russian Federation in the worst traditions of the Soviet Union conducts an aggressive war against Ukraine, and planted the Soviet ideology of revenge at home, it is important to remind him of the wrongfulness of the very foundations of his «vertical of power». This «vertical» was built on the blood of millions of killed, starved and imprisoned in the concentration camps of the Russian peasants, including the brave peasants of Tambov. Thus, the recognition of the genocide of the Russian people Tambov will not only restore trampled justice, but also serve as a serious exhortation to all those who, forgetting the lessons of the past, covered a mad passion for world domination.
Author of the text and initiator of the petition — famous blogger Fedor Mamonov.
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